Established in 2002 under the Presidential Decree and the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation, the Almaz-Antey Corporation united dozens of enterprises, engaged in development and production of anti-aircraft missile systems of small, medium and long ranges, and main types of radar reconnaissance and automated control systems, including factories, research and production associations, design bureaus and research institutes. Later, in 2007, the Corporation underwent enlargement, and as of today, more than sixty enterprises from eighteen regions of the country are consolidated in its structure.

The Corporation became the first large holding created within the framework of the "Defense Industrial Complex Reformation and Development (2002-2006)" Federal Target Program. On its share fell a pioneer function of solving problems of corporate management system and equity capital formation.

The Board of Directors of the new integrated structure was headed by the Assistant to the President of the Russian Federation V. P. Ivanov until 2008, by the Deputy Head of the Administration of the President of the Russian Federation A. D. Beglov from 2008 to 2011, by V. F. Medovnikov from 2011 to 2014, and by the Chief Executive Manager of the State Corporation "Rostec" S.V. Chemezov from 2014 to 2016.

In November 2016, M.E. Fradkov was elected Chairman of the Board of Directors.

On February 5, 2015, the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin signed a decree on renaming the Almaz-Antey Air Defense Corporation to the Almaz-Antey Air and Space Defense Corporation. The same Decree approved the increase of the charter capital of the Corporation.

The Director General of the Corporation since March 2014 – J.V. Novikov.